PowerShell Part 2 – Installing a new service

Following on from the brief introduction to PowerShell, let’s walk through the installation script…

The script installs a simple Magic Eight Ball service that will return a pseudo-random answer to any question it’s given. The service is written as a WCF service in C#, the files to deploy are available from http://public.me.com/stefsewell/ , have a look in TechEd2010/DEV306-WindowsServerAppFabric/InstallationSource. The folder contains a web.config to set up the service activation and a bin folder with the service implementation. The PowerShell scripts are also available from the file share, look in Powershell folder in DEV306…

Pre-requisite Checking

The script begins by checking a couple of pre-requisites. If any of these checks fail then we do not attempt to install the service, instead the installing admin is told of the failed checks. There are a number of different checks we can make, in this script we check the OS version, that dependent services are installed and that the correct version of the .NET framework is available.

First we need a variable to hold whether or not we have a failure:

$failedPrereqs = $false

Next we move on to our first check: that the correct version of Windows being used:

$OSVersion = Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem
if(-not $OSVersion.Version.StartsWith('6.1')) {
    Write-Host "The operating system version is not supported, Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 required."
    $failedPrereqs = $true
    # See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa394239(v=VS.85).aspx for other properties of Win32_OperatingSystem
    # See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa394084(VS.85).aspx for additional WMI classes
}

The script fetches the Win32_OperatingSystem WMI object for interrogation using Get-WmiObject. This object contains a good deal of useful information, links are provided above to let you drill down into other properties. The script checks the Version to ensure that we are working with either Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008, in which case the version starts with “6.1”.

Next we look for a couple of installed services:

# IIS is installed
$IISService = Get-Service -Name 'W3SVC' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if(-not $IISService) {
    Write-Host "IIS is not installed on" $env:computername
    $FailedPrereqs = $true
}

# AppFabric is installed
$AppFabricMonitoringService = Get-Service -Name 'AppFabricEventCollectionService' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if(-not $AppFabricMonitoringService) {
    Write-Host "AppFabric Monitoring Service is not installed on" $env:computername
    $FailedPrereqs = $true
}

$AppFabricMonitoringService = Get-Service -Name 'AppFabricWorkflowManagementService' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if(-not $AppFabricMonitoringService) {
    Write-Host "AppFabric Workflow Management Service is not installed on" $env:computername
    $FailedPrereqs = $true
}

A basic pattern is repeated here using the Get-Service command to determine if a particular Windows Service is installed on the machine.

With the service requirements checked, we look to see if we have the correct version of the .NET framework installed. In our case we want the RTM of version 4 and go to the registry to validate this.

$frameworkVersion = get-itemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v4\Full' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if(-not($frameworkVersion) -or (-not($frameworkVersion.Version -eq '4.0.30319'))){
    Write-Host "The RTM version of the full .NET 4 framework is not installed."
    $FailedPrereqs = $true
}

The registry provider is used, HKLM: [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE], to look up a path in the registry that should contain the version. If the key is not found or the value is incorrect we fail the test.

Those are all the checks made in the original script from the DEV306 session, however there is great feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 that allows very simple querying of the installed Windows features. I found this by accident:

>Get-Module -ListAvailable

This command lists all of the available modules on a system, the ServerManager module looked interesting:

>Get-Command -Module ServerManager

CommandType Name Definition
----------- ---- ----------
Cmdlet Add-WindowsFeature Add-WindowsFeature [-Name] [-IncludeAllSubFeature] [-LogPath ] [-...
Cmdlet Get-WindowsFeature Get-WindowsFeature [[-Name] ] [-LogPath ] [-Verbose] [-Debug] [-Err...
Cmdlet Remove-WindowsFeature Remove-WindowsFeature [-Name] [-LogPath ] [-Concurrent] [-Restart...

A simple add/remove/get interface which allows you to easily determine which Windows roles and features are installed – then add or remove as required. This is ideal for pre-requisite checking as we can now explicitly check to see if the WinRM IIS Extensions are installed for example:

import-module ServerManager

if(-not (Get-WindowsFeature ‘WinRM-IIS-Ext’).Installed) {
    Write-Host "The WinRM IIS Extension is not installed"
}

Simply calling Get-WindowsFeature lists all features and marks-up those that are installed with [X]:

PS>C:\Windows\system32> Get-WindowsFeature

Display Name Name
------------ ----
[ ] Active Directory Certificate Services AD-Certificate
[ ] Certification Authority ADCS-Cert-Authority
[ ] Certification Authority Web Enrollment ADCS-Web-Enrollment
[ ] Certificate Enrollment Web Service ADCS-Enroll-Web-Svc
[ ] Certificate Enrollment Policy Web Service ADCS-Enroll-Web-Pol
[ ] Active Directory Domain Services AD-Domain-Services
[ ] Active Directory Domain Controller ADDS-Domain-Controller
[ ] Identity Management for UNIX ADDS-Identity-Mgmt
[ ] Server for Network Information Services ADDS-NIS
[ ] Password Synchronization ADDS-Password-Sync
[ ] Administration Tools ADDS-IDMU-Tools
[ ] Active Directory Federation Services AD-Federation-Services
[ ] Federation Service ADFS-Federation
[ ] Federation Service Proxy ADFS-Proxy
[ ] AD FS Web Agents ADFS-Web-Agents
[ ] Claims-aware Agent ADFS-Claims
[ ] Windows Token-based Agent ADFS-Windows-Token
[ ] Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services ADLDS
[ ] Active Directory Rights Management Services ADRMS
[ ] Active Directory Rights Management Server ADRMS-Server
[ ] Identity Federation Support ADRMS-Identity
[X] Application Server Application-Server
[X] .NET Framework 3.5.1 AS-NET-Framework
[X] AppFabric AS-AppServer-Ext
[X] Web Server (IIS) Support AS-Web-Support
[X] COM+ Network Access AS-Ent-Services
[X] TCP Port Sharing AS-TCP-Port-Sharing
[X] Windows Process Activation Service Support AS-WAS-Support
[X] HTTP Activation AS-HTTP-Activation
[X] Message Queuing Activation AS-MSMQ-Activation
[X] TCP Activation AS-TCP-Activation
...

The right hand column contains the name of the feature to use via the command.

I ended up writing a simple function to check for a list of features:

<#
.SYNOPSIS
Checks to see if a given set of Windows features are installed.    

.DESCRIPTION
Checks to see if a given set of Windows features are installed.

.PARAMETER featureSetArray
An array of strings containing the Windows features to check for.

.PARAMETER featuresName
A description of the feature set being tested for.

.EXAMPLE
Check that a couple of web server features are installed.

Check-FeatureSet -featureSetArray @('Web-Server','Web-WebServer','Web-Common-Http') -featuresName 'Required Web Features'

#>
function Check-FeatureSet{
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [array] $featureSetArray,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]$featuresName
    )
    Write-Host "Checking $featuresName for missing features..."

    foreach($feature in $featureSetArray){
        if(-not (Get-WindowsFeature $feature).Installed){
            Write-Host "The feature $feature is not installed"
        }
    }
}

The function introduces a number of PowerShell features such as comment documentation, functions, parameters and parameter attributes. I don’t intend to dwell on any as I hope the code is quite readable.

Then to use this:

# array of strings containing .NET related features
$dotNetFeatureSet = @('NET-Framework','NET-Framework-Core','NET-Win-CFAC','NET-HTTP-Activation','NET-Non-HTTP-Activ')

# array of string containing MSMQ related features
$messageQueueFeatureSet = @('MSMQ','MSMQ-Services','MSMQ-Server')

Check-FeatureSet $dotNetFeatureSet '.NET'
Check-FeatureSet $messageQueueFeatureSet 'Message Queuing'

To complete the pre-requisite check, after making each individual test the failure variable is evaluated. If true then the script ends with a suitable message, otherwise we go ahead with the install.

Installing the Service

The first step in the installation is to copy the required files from a known location. This is a pull model – the target server pulls the files across the network, rather than having the files pushed on to the server via an administration share or such like [e.g. \\myMachine\c$\Services\].

$sourcePath = '\\SomeMachine\MagicEightBallInstaller\'
$installPath = 'C:\Services\MagicEightBall'

if(-not (Test-Path $sourcePath)) {
Write-Host 'Cannot find the source path ' $sourcePath
Throw (New-Object System.IO.FileNotFoundException)
}

if(-not (Test-Path $installPath)) {
New-Item -type directory -path $installPath
Write-Host 'Created service directory at ' $installPath
}

Copy-Item -Path (Join-Path $sourcePath "*") -Destination $installPath -Recurse

Write-Host 'Copied the required service files to ' $installPath

The file structure is copied from a network share onto the machine the script is running on. The Test-Path command determines whether a path exists an allows appropriate action to be taken. To perform a recursive copy the Copy-Item command is called, using the Join-Path command to establish the source path. These path commands can be used with any provider, not just the file system.

With the files and directories in place, we now need to host the service in IIS. To do this we need to use the PowerShell module for IIS:

import-module WebAdministration # require admin-level privileges

Next…

$found = Get-ChildItem IIS:\AppPools | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq "NewAppPool"}
if(-not $found){
    New-WebAppPool 'NewAppPool'
}

We want to isolate our service into its own pool so we check to see if NewAppPool exists and if not we create it. We are using the IIS: provider to treat the web server as if it was a file system, again we just use standard commands to query the path.

Set-ItemProperty IIS:\AppPools\NewAppPool -Name ProcessModel -Value @{IdentityType=3;Username="MyServer\Service.EightBall";Password="p@ssw0rd"} # 3 = Custom

Set-ItemProperty IIS:\AppPools\NewAppPool -Name ManagedRuntimeVersion -Value v4.0

Write-Host 'Created application pool NewAppPool'

Having created the application pool we set some properties. In particular we ensure that .NET v4 is used and that a custom identity is used. The @{} syntax allows us to construct new object instances – in this case a new process model object.

New-WebApplication -Site 'Default Web Site' -Name 'MagicEightBall' -PhysicalPath $installPath -ApplicationPool 'NewAppPool' -Force

With the application pool in place and configured, we next set-up the web application itself. The New-WebApplication command is all we need, giving it the site, application name, physical file system path and application pool.

Set-ItemProperty 'IIS:/Sites/Default Web Site/MagicEightBall' -Name EnabledProtocols 'http,net.tcp' # do not include spaces in the list!

Write-Host 'Created web application MagicEightBall'

To enable both HTTP and net.tcp endpoints, we simply update the EnabledProtocols property of the web application. Thanks to default endpoints in WCF4, this is all we need to do get both protocols supported. Note: do not put spaces into the list of protocols.

Configuring AppFabric Monitoring

We now have enough script to create the service host, but we want to add AppFabric monitoring. Windows Server AppFabric has a rich PowerShell API, to access it we need to import the module:

import-module ApplicationServer

Next we need to create our monitoring database:

[Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("System.Data")

$monitoringDatabase = 'MagicEightBallMonitoring'
$monitoringConnection = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnectionStringBuilder -argumentList "Server=localhost;Database=$monitoringDatabase;Integrated Security=true"
$monitoringConnection.Pooling = $true

We need a couple of variables: a database name and a connection string. We use the SqlConnectionStringBuilder out of the System.Data assembly to get our connection string. This demonstrates the deep integration between PowerShell and .NET.

Add-WebConfiguration -Filter connectionStrings -PSPath "MACHINE/WEBROOT/APPHOST/Default Web Site/MagicEightBall" -Value @{name="MagicEightBallMonitoringConnection"; connectionString=$monitoringConnection.ToString()}

We add the connection string to our web application configuration.

Initialize-ASMonitoringSqlDatabase -Admins 'Domain\AS_Admins' -Readers 'DOMAIN\AS_Observers' -Writers 'DOMAIN\AS_MonitoringWriters' -ConnectionString $monitoringConnection.ToString() -Force

And then we create the actual database, passing in the security groups. While local machine groups can be used, in this case I’m mocking a domain group which is more appropriate for load balanced scenarios.

Set-ASAppMonitoring -SiteName 'Default Web Site' -VirtualPath 'MagicEightBall' -MonitoringLevel 'HealthMonitoring' -ConnectionStringName 'MagicEightBallMonitoringConnection'

The last step is to enable monitoring for the web application, above we are setting a ‘health monitoring’ level which is enough to populate the AppFabric dashboard inside the IIS manager.

Set-ASAppServiceMetadata -SiteName 'Default Web Site' -VirtualPath 'MagicEightBall' -HttpGetEnabled $True

Last of all we ensure that meta data publishing is available for our service. This allows us to test the service using the WCFTestClient application.

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